Regarding to Zhara et approach., (1999) different scholars use different expressions to explain entrepreneurship (e. g., Entrepreneurship, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Intrapreneurship, Entrepreneurship Posture, Entrepreneurial Orientation), but from the variety of expressions used to explain entrepreneurship, there is regularity regarding entrepreneurship’s definition and measurement.
Generally speaking, entrepreneurship based research usually give attention to either Traits or Habit. Considering that the nineties, behavior underlie almost all entrepreneurship’s research, the key reason behind this is a limited success of historians to reinforce the presence of common traits that characterize entrepreneurs (Smart and Conant, 1994). Gartner (1988) argues that the emphasis should be on “what the entrepreneur does” but not “who is the entrepreneur”. Behavior based research give attention to the entrepreneurship process through the entrepreneur activities, that rather than referring to personal specific traits (Smart and Conant, 1994). Behavior centered entrepreneurship’s research is usually conducted at entrepreneur level; nonetheless, scholars claim that entrepreneurship is implemented at the firm level as well (Carland et. ‘s., 1984; Naman and Slevin, 1993; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Wiklund, 1999). empreendedorismo materno
This kind of article tries to build a common base for defining firm level entrepreneurship. Naman and Slevin (1993) states that organization can be characterized and assessed based on the level of entrepreneurship demonstrate by the firm’s management. Relating to Covin and Slevin (1986), top managers at entrepreneurship’s firm have got an entrepreneurship type of management, which affect the firm’s tactical decisions and management beliefs.
In order to set up definition for the company level entrepreneurship, it is necessary to present you will of management behavior employed by scholars for that subject. Schumpeter (1934) states that innovativeness is the only entrepreneurship behavior that divides between entrepreneurship’s activities to non-entrepreneurship’s activities. Innovation pertains to the pursuit after creative solutions through the expansion and improvement of products and services as well as administrative and technological techniques (Davis et al., 1991). Innovation reflects the business tendency to support new ideas and procedures, which can end as new products or services Lumpkin and Dess (1996).
In his book “Essai au sein de Nature Trade en General”, Richard Cantillon (1755) argues that the essence of entrepreneurship is a risk-taking behavior. Matching to Lumpkin and Dess (1996), risk-taking can range from relatively “safe” risk as deposit money to the bank to quite risky actions like buying untested technologies or introducing new product to the market. Inside their research, Burns and Friesen (1982) specify an entrepreneurial model of innovativeness, this model take care firm that innovate spirit and regularly while taking substantial risks in their strategy.
Third dimension, which is often added to innovation and risk-taking, is Proactive. Relating to Davis et ing., (1991) proactive associates with an aggressive posture, relatively to competitors, while striving to achieve firm’s goals by all rational needed means. Lumpkin and Dess (2001) which proactive bring up to the way the firm associates to business opportunities through acquisition of initiatives in the market it’s operate in.